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Low Voltage, High Current Time Delay Circuit

In this circuit a LM339 quad voltage comparator is used to generate a time delay and control a high current output at low voltage. Approximatey 5 amps of current can be obtained using a couple fresh alkaline D batteries. Three of the comparators are wired in parallel to drive a medium power PNP transistor (2N2905 or similar) which in turn drives a high current NPN transistor (TIP35 or similar).... [read more]

Simple but reliable car battery tester

This circuit uses the popular and easy to find LM3914 IC. This IC is very simple to drive, needs no voltage regulators (it has a built in voltage regulator) and can be powered from almost every source.... [read more]

Set/Reset Flip Flop

This is an example of a set/reset flip flop using discrete components. When power is applied, only one of the transistors will conduct causing the other to remain off. The conducting transistor can be turned off by grounding it's base through the push button which causes the collector voltage to rise and turn on the opposite transistor.... [read more]

Decibel Meter

The circuit below responds to sound pressure levels from about 60 to 70 dB. The sound is picked up by an 8 ohm speaker, amplified by a transistor stage and one LM324 op-amp section. You can also use a dynamic microphone but I found the speaker was more sensitive. The remaining 3 sections of the LM324 quad op-amp are used as voltage comparators and drive 3 indicator LEDs or incandescents which are spaced about 3dB apart. An additional transistor is needed for incandescent lights as shown with the lower lamp.... [read more]

Tube Power Amplifier with EL34 - 35W

It's a classic designing of final amplifier 35 W, with two EL34 in push-pull, from the Siemens and Halske, with year of designing 24/3/1953 and code SV410/1. The amplifier it worked from 1954 until 1989, whenever it came also out except operation, with mean of operation 15 hours per day.... [read more]

Solar Panel Based Charger And Small LED Lamp

You can save on your electricity bills by switching to alternative sources of power. The photovoltaic module or solar panel described here is capable of delivering a power of 5 watts. At full sunlight, the solar panel outputs 16.5V. It can deliver a current of 300-350 mA. Using it you can charge three types of batteries: lead acid, Ni-Cd and Li-ion. The lead-acid batteries are commonly used in emergency lamps and UPS. The working of the circuit is simple.... [read more]