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Brightness Controller Circuit For Small Lamps and Leds
This device was designed on request; to control the light intensity of four filament lamps (i.e. a ring illuminator) powered by two AA or AAA batteries, for close-up pictures with a digital camera. Obviously it can be used in other ways, at anyone's will.IC1 generates a 150Hz square wave having a variable duty-cycle. When the cursor of P1 is fully rotated towards D1, the output positive pulses appearing at pin 3 of IC1 are very narrow....
Discrete Virtual Ground Circuit
Here is the simple virtual ground circuit based on discrete components. This simple design comes from miniaturization guru Sijosae. Is to make a buffer from generic discrete components. The transistors can be most any complementary pair of small-signal transistors. Suitable alternatives are the PN2222A and PN2907A. The diodes are generic small-signal types. An acceptable alternative is the 1N914. This circuit has better performance than a simple resistive divider virtual ground, and the parts cost is lower than for any other circuit mentioned here. It is, however, the least accurate of the buffered virtual ground circuits....
Simple AM Transmitter
There are not many AM transmitters that are easier to build than this one because the inductor is not tapped and has a single winding. There is no need to wind the inductor as it is a readily available RF choke (eg, Jaycar Cat LF-1536). To make the circuit as small as possible, the conventional tuning capacitor has been dispensed with and fixed 220pF capacitors used instead. To tune it to a particular frequency, reduce one or both of the 220pF capacitors to raise the frequency or add capacitance in parallel to lower the frequency. Q1 is biased with a 1MO resistor to give a high input impedance and this allows the use of a crystal ear piece as a low cost microphone....
Adjustable Current Limit For Dual Power Supply
This current-limiting circuit, shown in this example as part of a small bench power supply, could in principle be used in conjunction with any dual-rail current source. The part of the circuit to the left of the diagram limits the current at the input to the dual voltage regulator (IC4 to IC7) so that it is safely protected against overload. The circuit shown produces outputs at ±15 V and ±5V. The voltage regulators at the outputs (7815/7805 and 7915/7905) need no further comment; but the current-limiting circuit itself, built around an LM317 and an LM337, is not quite so self-explanatory....
Stepper Motor Controller
his circuit is built from standard components and can easily be adapted to be controlled by a computer. If you use cheap surplus transistors and stepper motor, the price of the circuit can be kept to under $10....