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12 Stage Neon Sequencer (NE-2 / NE-51)

This circuit is similar to the LED clock using 12 neon indicator lamps instead of LEDs. It operates from 2 high capacity ni-cad cells (2.5 volts) which keep it going for a couple weeks. High voltage (70 volts) for the neon lamps is obtained from a small switching power supply using a 74HC14 Schmitt trigger squarewave oscillator, high voltage switching transistor, and 10 mH high Q inductor.... [read more]

Operational Amplifier (Op-Amp) Basics

The op-amp is basically a differential amplifier having a large voltage gain, very high input impedance and low output impedance. The op-amp has a "inverting" or (-) input and "noninverting" or (+) input and a single output. The op-amp is usually powered by a dual polarity power supply in the range of +/- 5 volts to +/- 15 volts. A simple dual polarity power supply is shown in the figure below which can be assembled with two 9 volt batteries.... [read more]

FM Transmitter Bug

This small transmitter uses a hartley type oscillator.... [read more]

Voltage Inverter II

This simple and inexpensive circuit can produce a dual (positive and negative) voltage from a single supply input. It is therefore extremely useful for powering opamp and other circuits that require a dual voltage from a single battery. The circuit will operate at an input voltage from around 5V to 20V and produce a output from +-2.5V to +-10V.... [read more]

TTL Power Supply with ‘Crowbar’ protection

Power supplies that are intended to be used with TTL logic circuitry must guard against over-voltage, which can destroy TTL chips very rapidly. The duration of over-voltage that can destroy TTL chips is much too brief to trigger any conventional fuse, so that only other semiconductor circuits can play any useful part in protecting a circuit against the type of failure of a stabilizer that leads to excessive voltage. As it happens, this is the most common type of stabilizer failure, so that the protection is necessary for any TTL circuit of any significance. Many modern digital circuits make extensive use of MOS devices, which are less susceptible to damage from over-voltage, but it is unusual to find a large digital circuit, which does not contain at least one or more TTL devices.... [read more]

On-off Infrared Remote Control

Most homes today have at least a few infrared remote controls, whether they be for the television, the video recorder, the stereo, etc. Despite that fact, who among us has not cursed the light that remained lit after we just sat down in a comfortable chair to watch a good film? This project proposes to solve that problem thanks to its original approach. In fact, it is for a common on/off switch for infrared remote controls, but what differentiates it from the commercial products is the fact that it is capable of working with any remote control.... [read more]