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Low Frequency Sinewave Generators
The two circuits illustrate generating low frequency sinewaves by shifting the phase of the signal through an RC network so that oscillation occurs where the total phase shift is 360 degrees. The transistor circuit on the right produces a reasonable sinewave at the collector of the 3904 which is buffered by the JFET to yield a low impedance output. The circuit gain is critical for low distortion and you may need to adjust the 500 ohm resistor to achieve a stable waveform with minimum distortion. The transistor circuit is not recommended for practical applications due to the critical adjustments needed....
9 Second Digital Readout Countdown Timer
This circuit provides a visual 9 second delay using a 7 segment digital readout LED. When the switch is closed, the CD4010 up/down counter is preset to 9 and the 555 timer is disabled with the output held high....
On-Off Temperature Control
This circuit controls a load (in this case a dc brushless fan) based on a temperature compared with a setpoint. THe transduced is a diode in the forward polarization regime. In fact when forward biased, the forward voltage drop accross a diode has a temperature dependance, in particular has a negative linear(ish) slope. This because of the boltzmann distribuition, causing electrons to pass to the conduction band thermically, lowering the voltage drop accross the diode....
Using LED As A Light Sensor
This circuit shows how to use an ordinary LED as a light sensor. It makes use of the photovoltaic voltage developed across the LED when it is exposed to light. LEDs are cheaper than photodiodes and come with a built-in filter, which is useful when the application involves colour discrimination. The photo-voltage of a red LED (its bandgap voltage) is typically about 2V. The source impedance of this voltage is about 800MΩ in daylight, rising to infinity in darkness. A TL071 JFET input op amp is used to amplify and buffer this extremely high impedance signal....
It’s entirely logical that low-cost miniature microcontrollers have fewer ‘legs’ than their bigger brothers and sisters – some-times too few. The author has given some consideration to how to economise on pins, making them do the work of several. It occurred that one could exploit the high-impedance feature of a tri-state output. In this way the signal produced by the high-impedance state could be used for example as a CS signal of two ICs or else as a RD/WR signal. All we need are two op-amps or comparators sharing a single operating voltage of 5 V and outputs capable of reaching full Low and High levels in 5-V operation (preferably types with rail-to-rail outputs)....