Sensor schematics

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Clap Sensitive On-Off Relay

This circuit was intended to activate a relay by means of a hand clap. Further claps will turn-off the relay. An interesting and unusual feature of this project is the 3V battery operation. The circuit's sensitivity was deliberately reduced, in order to avoid unpredictable operation. Therefore, a loud hand clap will be required to allow unfailing on-off switching. Q1 acts as an audio amplifier. IC1 timer, wired as a monostable, provides a clean output signal and a reasonable time delay in order to allow proper switching of the following bistable circuit. A discrete-components circuit formed by Q2, Q3 and related parts was used for this purpose, in order to drive the Relay directly and to allow 3V supply operation.... [read more]

Simple Capacitive Touch Sensor

Capacitive touch sensors are based on the electrical capacitance of the human body. When, for example, a finger comes close to the sensor, it creates a capacitance to Earth with a value of 30 to 100 pF. This effect can be used for proximity detection and touch-controlled switching. Capacitive switches have clear advantages compared to other types of touch switches (for example 50 Hz or 60 Hz detection or resistance detection), but are often more complex to implement.... [read more]

Temperature-Controlled Switch

It sounds rather mysterious: a switch that is controlled by its ambient temperature. All without the touch of a human hand, except for when you’re building this sort of electronic thermostat. There are a lot of handy uses for a thermally controlled switch. If the temperature inside your PC gets too high sometimes, the circuit can switch on an extra fan. You can also use to switch on an electric heater automatically if the room temperature is too low. There are innumerable potential applications for the thermostat described here.... [read more]

Dark Activated Terrace Lamp

This device allows one or more lamps to illuminate at sunset and turn off at dawn.Q1 and Q2 form a trigger device for the SCR, providing short pulses at 100Hz frequency. Pulse duration is set by R2 and C1.When the light hits R1, the photo resistor assumes a very low resistance value, almost shorting C1 and preventing circuit operation. When R1 is in the dark, its resistance value becomes very high thus enabling circuit operation.... [read more]

Room Noise Detector Circuit Schematic

This circuit is intended to signal, through a flashing LED, the exceeding of a fixed threshold in room noise, chosen from three fixed levels, namely 50, 70 & 85 dB. Two Op-amps provide the necessary circuit gain for sounds picked-up by a miniature electret microphone to drive a LED. With SW1 in the first position the circuit is off. Second, third and fourth positions power the circuit and set the input sensitivity threshold to 85, 70 & 50 dB respectively. Current drawing is 1mA with LED off and 12-15mA when the LED is steady on.... [read more]

Water Pump Relay Controller Circuit Schematic

By means of a Relay, employed to drive a water pump, this circuit provides automatic level control of a water reservoir or well. The shorter steel rod is the "water high" sensor, whereas the longer is the "water low" sensor. When the water level is below both sensors, IC1C output (pin #10) is low; if the water becomes in contact with the longer sensor the output remains low until the shorter sensor is reached. At this point IC1C output goes high, Q1 conducts, the Relay is energized and the pump starts operating.... [read more]

Plant Watering Watcher Circuit Schematic

This circuit is intended to signal when a plant needs water. A LED flashes at a low rate when the ground in the flower-pot is too dry, turning off when the moisture level is increasing. Adjusting R2 will allow the user to adapt the sensitivity of the circuit for different grounds, pots and probe types.... [read more]

Automatic Water Tank Filler Circuit Diagram

This circuit has been very useful in filling a header tank for a reticulated water supply on a farm. Eight troughs are supplied in different paddocks where a lack of water would have serious consequences for the stock. In the past, the tank had been filled daily by a time clock which was not successful. During hot weather, the stock would empty the tank on a regular basis and then be without water for several hours or the tank would overflow and flood the area if the weather was wet and the cattle did not drink much.... [read more]

Whistle Responder Schematic - Circuit Diagram

This device beeps intermittently for about two seconds when a person in a range of around 10 meters emits a whistle. The first two inverters contained in IC1 are used as audio amplifiers. IC1A amplifies consistently the signal picked-up by the small electret-microphone and IC1B acts as a band-pass filter, its frequency being centered at about 1.8KHz. The filter is required in order to select a specific frequency, the whistle's one, stopping other frequencies that would cause undesired beeper operation. IC1C is wired as a Schmitt trigger, squaring the incoming audio signal. IC1D is a 2 second-delay monostable driving the astable formed by IC1E & IC1F. This oscillator generates a 3 to 5Hz square wave feeding Q1 and BZ1, thus providing intermittent beeper operation.... [read more]

Capacitive Sensor Circuit Diagram

The purpose of this circuit is to animate shop-windows by means of a capacitive sensor placed behind a post-card-like banner. The card is placed against the glass inside the shop-window, and the visitor can activate the relay placing his hand on the card, from the outside. Especially suited for toy-shops, the circuit can activate model trains, small electric racing cars, lights etc. Further applications are left at user's imagination. Adopt it to increase the impact of your shop-window on next Christmas season!... [read more]

Water Level Indicator Circuit Schematic

When the water-level is below the steel rods, no contact is occurring from the metal can and the rods, which are supported by a small insulated (wooden) board. The small circuit built around IC1 draws no current and therefore no voltage drop is generated across R5. IC2A, IC2B and Q1 are wired as a window comparator and, as there is zero voltage at input pins #2 and #5, D3 will illuminate. When the water comes in contact with the first rod, pin #13 of IC1 will go high, as its input pins #9 to #12 were shorted to negative by means of the water contact.... [read more]

Simple One-Wire Touch Detector

This simple circuit can be used to activate whatever you like, for example, by connecting it to microcontroller, relays, secret alarms, robot applications or just turn on LED1 which lights up as long as you touch the metal plate. The circuit consists of voltage divider R1 and R2, one Schmitt trigger/inverter gate from a 40106 IC, a small capacitor to keep strong RF at bay and LED1 with current limiting resistor R3. The metal plate is connected via a wire to R1. R1 and R2 together form a voltage divider.... [read more]

Energy Leak Detector Circuit Diagram

This sensitive circuit is basically a comparator, detecting very slight temperature changes in respect to the ambient temperature. It was primarily intended to detect draughts around doors and windows that cause energy leaks but can be used in many other ways, when a sensitive temperature change detector is needed. Two LEDs are used to signal if the temperature change is pointing above (Red LED) or below (Green LED) the ambient temperature.... [read more]

110 and 220V AC LED Voltage Indicator

This circuit has proven to be useful to indicate when the voltage in a power supply line is changing from 120V to 240Vac. It can be used in different circumstances and circuits, mainly when an increase in ac or dc supply voltage needs to be detected. D3 illuminates when the line voltage is approaching 120V and will remain in the on state also at 240V supply. On the other hand, D6 will illuminate only when the line voltage is about 240V and will stay on because the latching action of Q1, Q2 and related components. C1, D1 and D2 provide a low dc voltage in the 4.5V - 6V range in order to allow proper operation of latch circuit and LEDs.... [read more]

Water Level Alert Circuit Schematic

This circuit will emit an intermittent beep (or will flash a LED) when the water contained into a recipient has reached the desired level. It should be mounted on top of the recipient (e.g. a plastic tank) by means of two crocodile clips, acting also as probes. If a deeper sensing level is needed, the clips can be extended by means of two pieces of stiff wire (see pictures).... [read more]

Water Alarm Circuit Diagram

Have you ever seen the stairs to one of the upper stories in your house turn into a waterfall? Or maybe you’ve come home to find your aquarium fish trying to swim across the carpet? For your sake, we hope not, because the consequences are usually fairly dramatic. With a handful of electronic components, you can at least ensure that you will be warned before you have to put on your waders. It’s better to prevent water problems than to have to correct them. But no how many precautions you take, an occasional leak can still happen.... [read more]

Smart Trailing Socket

This circuit consists of a Trailing Socket (also called Extension or Distribution Socket) or similar device where two, three or more sockets (depending on the box dimensions and on constructor's needs) will be powered only when a current flows in the Control Socket. For example: if an electric drill is connected to the Control Socket, the Switched Sockets will be powered each time the electric drill is running. In this case, a lamp could be connected to a Switched Socket and will illuminate when the drill is operating.... [read more]

On Off Touch Switch Circuit

The modern mechanic switches are improved concerning of old technology. We need however many times to replacement some old switch or to check currents bigger than the durability of certain switches or simple we need something with modern appearance. For he and different reasons is essential the up circuit. It is simple in the manufacture and the materials that use they exist everywhere.... [read more]

Using LED As A Light Sensor

This circuit shows how to use an ordinary LED as a light sensor. It makes use of the photovoltaic voltage developed across the LED when it is exposed to light. LEDs are cheaper than photodiodes and come with a built-in filter, which is useful when the application involves colour discrimination. The photo-voltage of a red LED (its bandgap voltage) is typically about 2V. The source impedance of this voltage is about 800MΩ in daylight, rising to infinity in darkness. A TL071 JFET input op amp is used to amplify and buffer this extremely high impedance signal.... [read more]

Fully Automatic Emergency Light

The circuit can be divided into inverter and charger sections. The inverter section is built around timer NE555, while the charger section is built around 3-terminal adjustable regulator LM317. In the inverter section, NE555 is wired as an astable multivibrator that produces a 15kHz squarewave. Output pin 3 of IC 555 is connected to the Darlington pair formed by transistors SL100 (T1) and 2N3055 (T2) via resistor R4.... [read more]

Electronic Candle Blow Out Schematic

This design was developed by request of a correspondent having made a sort of LED candle and needing to switch off the LED with a puff. This simple, easy to build gadget can be useful as a prop for Halloween and Christmas season, shows and the like. Q2 & Q3 form a self-latching pair that start operating when P1 is pushed: in this way the LED (or bulb) will illuminate steadily. When someone emits a strong puff in the vicinity of the small electret microphone.... [read more]

Heating System Thermostat Circuit

This circuit is intended to control a heating system or central heating plan, keeping constant indoor temperature in spite of wide range changes in the outdoor one. Two sensors are needed: one placed outdoors, in order to sense the external temperature; the other placed on the water-pipe returning from heating system circuit, short before its input to the boiler.... [read more]

Automatic Light Controller Using 7806

Voltage regulator ICs (78xx series) provide a steady output voltage, as against a widely fluctuating input supply, when the common terminal is grounded. Any voltage about zero volt (ground) connected in the common terminal is added to the output voltage. That means the increase in the common terminal voltage is reflected at the output. On the other hand, if the common terminal is disconnected from the ground, the full input voltage is available at the output. This characteristic is utilised in the present circuit.... [read more]

Mains Supply Failure Alarm

Whenever AC mains supply fails, this circuit alerts you by sounding an alarm. It also provides a backup light to help you find your way to the torch or the generator key in the dark. The circuit is powered directly by a 9V PP3/6F22 compact battery. Pressing of switch S1 provides the 9V power supply to the circuit. A red LED (LED2), in conjunction with zener diode ZD1 (6V), is used to indicate the battery power level.... [read more]

Fridge-Door Open Alarm Circuit Project

It beeps if the fridge door is left open for too long or hasn't closed properly, to stop food from spoiling. There are lots of other uses as well. A refrigerator or freezer door that is left open or ajar may cause the food contents to spoil. In some cases, the internal temperature of the fridge or freezer will be maintained if the refrigeration system can cope with the open door.... [read more]

Fridge Door Alarm Schematic 2nd Version

The circuit, enclosed in a small box, should be placed in the fridge near the lamp (if any) or close to the opening. With the door closed, the interior of the fridge is in dark, the photo resistor R2 presents a high resistance (>200K) thus clamping IC1 by holding C1 fully charged across R1 and D1. When a beam of light enters from the opening, or the fridge lamp lights, the photo resistor lowers its resistance (<2K) stopping C1 charging current.... [read more]

Fridge Door Alarm Circuit

This circuit, enclosed into a small box, is placed in the fridge near the lamp (if any) or the opening. With the door closed the interior of the fridge is in the dark, the photo resistor R2 presents a high resistance (up to 200K) thus clamping IC1 by holding pin 12 high. When a beam of light enters from the opening, or the fridge lamp illuminates, the photo resistor lowers its resistance (less 2K), pin 12 goes low, IC1 starts counting and, after a preset delay (20 seconds in this case) the piezo sounder beeps for 20 sec. then stops for the same lapse of time and the cycle repeats until the fridge door closes. D2 connected to pin 6 of IC1 allows the piezo sounder beeping 3 times per second.... [read more]

Fire Alarm Using Thermistor

In this fire alarm circuit, a Thermistor works as the heat sensor. When temperature increases, its resistance decreases, and vice versa. At normal temperature, the resistance of the Thermistor (TH1) is approximately 10 kilo-ohms, which reduces to a few ohms as the temperature increases beyond 100 C. The circuit uses readily available components and can be easily constructed on any general-purpose PCB.... [read more]

Pinewood Derby Finish Line Lamps

The finish line circuit detects the first of three cars to cross the line and illuminates a 25 watt 120 VAC lamp indicating the winning lane. Three photo transistors are used which can be embedded into the track with a light shining down onto the finish line so that as the car crosses over the sensor, the light is blocked, activating the relay and lighting the lamp for the appropriate track. The light source should be an incandescent type, florescent lights may not work due to low infra-red content. The circuit was tested using a 100 watt incandescent light fixture about 3 feet above the photo transistors.... [read more]

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