Current and voltage schematics

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Circuit Board Checker

This little circuit indicates the basic integrity of a printed board, detecting 0V, positive supply voltage from less than 3V to 30V and floating parts. If the probe is floating, as it would be in a broken track, then both LEDs barely light up, since there is no current to drive the transistors, but if the probe touches 0V or a positive voltage one or other lights. A digital signal should light them in proportion to the mark-space ratio whereas the output of a circuit oscillating at a frequency rate below about 20Hz will cause the LEDs to flicker alternatively. The LEDs will illuminate always at a constant intensity, no matter the voltage supply used, because they are fed by a very simple FET constant-current generator (Q1).... [read more]

Simple Logic Probe

This simple logic probe has both LEDs on with no signal at the input but due to the nor gates connected to the probe, indicates correctly when a high or low signal is present. It also works correctly for pulse trains. Normally both LEDs are forward biased and therefore on, powered by the 12V supply. When a logic "high" is present at the probe, IC1a's output goes low sending IC1b's output high. This turns off LED1 but forward-biases (and turns on) LED2. Conversely, a logic "low" at the probe will send IC1b low, turning LED1 on and LED2 off.... [read more]

Live Line Detector-Indicator Circuit Schematic

If the unit is brought close to a live conductor (insulated, and even buried in plaster) capacitive coupling between the live conductor and the probe clocks the counter, and causes the LED to flash 5 times per second, because the 4017 IC divides the mains 50Hz frequency by 10. When remote from a live line, the unit stops counting, the LED resulting permanently off.... [read more]

DC or AC Voltage Indicator Circuit

This circuit is not a novelty, but it proved so useful, simple and cheap that it is worth building. When the positive (Red) probe is connected to a DC positive voltage and the Black probe to the negative, the Red LED will illuminate. Reversing polarities the Green LED will illuminate. Connecting the probes to an AC source both LEDs will go on.... [read more]

Low Voltage Alarm

This low voltage circuit can be used to monitor batteries and other volatile sources of current for problems. The circuit sounds an alarm and lights an LED, but can be interfaced to any number of other circuits for many different uses.... [read more]

Self-powered Fast Battery-Tester

This circuit runs a fast battery test without the need of power supply or expensive moving-coil voltmeters. It has two ranges: when SW1 is set as shown in the circuit diagram, the device can test 3V to 15V batteries. When SW1 is switched to the other position, only 1.5V cells can be tested.... [read more]

Logic Probe

This circuit is a Logic Probe. It indicates the logic state of the node of any TTL logic circuit. To do that, we have to supply the probe with the same power of the circuit that we want to analyse: same Vcc and same GND. To check the logic level, we must connect the "Test" wire of the probe to the desired node of the circuit that we want to check.... [read more]

Picoammeter circuit with 4 ranges

This circuit uses a CA3420 BiMOS op amp to form a picoammeter with 4 ranges. The exceptionally low input current (typically 0.2pA) makes the CA3420 highly suited for use in a picoammeter circuit. Input transient protection is provided by the 1 megohm resistor in series with the input.... [read more]

Precision Audio Millivoltmeter

Measures 10mV to 50Volt RMS in eight ranges Simply connect to your Avo-meter set @ 50uA range... [read more]

Digital Voltmeter

The ICL7107 is a 3 1/2 digit LED A/D convertor. It contains an internal voltage reference, high isolation analog switches, sequential control logic, and the display drivers.... [read more]

Analog Milliamp Meter Used as Voltmeter

A milliamp meter can be used as a volt meter by adding a series resistance. The resistance needed is the full scale voltage reading divided by the full scale current of the meter movement. So, if you have a 1 milliamp meter and you want to read 0-10 volts you will need a total resistance of 10/.001 = 10K ohms.... [read more]

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